Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Reasons Behind the High Rate of Dropouts

An incredible lion's share of Houston†s kids enlist for school after they have delighted in summer excursion. Houston zone dropout rates list begins at full limit, even by Christmas excursion the enlistment list has decreased to half of the understudies. The purpose behind high dropout rates isn't on the grounds that Houston territory schools couldn't care less about instruction, they are not taking it genuine. As indicated by the Houston Chronicle, a Houston territory paper, † the Houston Independent School District, for instance, neglected to represent 2,131 understudies who were joined up with 1997-98 however not in 1998-99. In no way, shape or form will that number diminishing, if grown-ups don't discover what is removing our children from schools. A youthful brain possibly quits realizing when deterrent are placed in the manner. Deterrent, for example, adolescent wrongdoing and medication actitives, high schooler pregnacy, absence of family assets, and guardians who couldn't care less. Texas Education Agency detailed in the Houston Chronicle, that the main explanation understudies dropout of school is wrongdoing and medication actitves. Youngsters carry weapons alongside schoolwork to class each day. Some adolescent don't make it to juinor high without a homicide case. Dominant part of dropout will wind up in jail and never observe the front day of a school. Medication additionally taking the psyches of our little youngsters. They search for whatever will assist them with adapting to consistently issues. While their issues are just prepping the dependence just get more grounded. Half of the understudies will get added substance to some sort of medication, and become dropouts. Another snag that causes high dropout rates is adolescent pregnacy. Unfortunately, an enormous percent of more youthful students become guardians during secondary school. This obstruction generally influence females because of the way that most male understudies don't stay to help their youngster. At that point the female needs to calculate an approach to go to class and pay for a sitter. Since, it takes cash to raise a child the mother just decision is to dropout of secondary school and keep up an all day work. For what reason do kids chose to raise babies, rather than doing basic every day schoolwork? That question stays to be a riddle to numerous grown-ups. The third deterrent would be absence of family reserves. Barely any families in today†s society despite everything comprise of a dad and a mother. One parent battling to help a family isn't a simple thing for a kid to watch. In the long run that youth finds any techniques to carry cash into the house. A few understudies will discover legitimate ways, for example, a vocation for additional cash; the other portion of the understudy particpate in unlawful actitives to help their family. That kid is stressed over preventing his mom or father from crying over cash issues each night. To wrap things up, one of the issues is guardians who couldn't care less or incapable to give legitimate consideration to their youngsters. There are guardians who have at least two occupations and feel that their kids can watch themselves. At that point different guardians simply can not control their children. The individual ventures out from home that morning for school and the parent won't see them until two days after the fact. The dad or mother needs to support their kids, however guardians can indeed do a limited amount of a lot. Indeed, even the laws don't take extraordinary measures on youngster flee. The police brings the youths home so they can flee again the following morning. There additionally guardians who have medication or criminal issues themselves. The guardians are to stressed over getting more medications or taking a vehicle to mind if their kid is going to class. What happened to guardians being the best good examples they can be. Until Houston realzies the impediments in more youthful student experience the dropout insights will just increment. While the numbers are rising our city will comprise of uneducated individuals who didn't complete secondary school. What kind of city will Houston become if the vast majority of the residents are secondary school dropouts? The city can possibly develop if there are instructed individuals running it. Likewise, youngsters being permitted to settle on the choice to dropout of school will just make the issue rehash itself. At the point when guardians are dropouts they for the most part need more cash to stop the cycle. In the event that a parent drops out because of destitution the greater part of them never escape neediness. With out an instruction lucrative occupations don't drop out of the sky, so parent is bringing up their youngster as were they. What prevents kids from dropping out when they own folks were dropouts? Another impact of dropping out of school is going all through remedial framework. As per America Skips School, an article by Benjamin Barber, â€Å"the government spends up to $35,000 every year to keep a youthful dark male in the slammer yet a small amount of that to keep him in school. At the point when he is discharged back to society it will be hard to get a new line of work, since he is an ex-criminal and a dropout. Numerous ex-lawbreakers go all through jail because of the reality they can not get a not too bad line of work. As Barber states in America Skips School, â€Å"if Americans were not kidding guardians, educators, legislators, and messes with themselves would discover answers for secondary school dropouts. Guardians ought to have dreams that they kid life will be better than their own. On the off chance that a mother was a dropout for what reason do her daugther must be a dropout? Guardians mindful and indicating it will likewise help dropout rates. Killing the TV and conversing with their kid for one hour will just make their relationship more grounded. At the point when that kid settles on the choice to drop out of secondary school they could talk it over with their folks first. At that point the guardians could call attention with the impacts of not having training. In the event that a parent converses with their kids they will realize that they are not kidding about school. Educators have a significant influence with kids going to class. Numerous educators have quit instructing with their souls, yet educating for a check. They should go past the study halls to direct in danger understudies and their families. Instructor may not gain the most significant compensations, yet educating ought to be an honor by it†s self. They could likewise help by making the study hall a pleasant spot to be. Youngsters will begin to float off when the homeroom is exhausting or they feel idiotic. What can an understudy realize whether a teacher†s just technique for educating is sitting behind a work area a perusing a book to them? Educating with a caring heart will tell the understudies that instructors are not kidding about school. Legislators can stop a great deal of school issues by changing a couple of laws. The administration could bring more unfortunate networks up to standard by finding different wellsprings of financing for Houston schools other than property charges. Rather, of spending assessments to construct another vault for diversion; lawmakers ought to have battled for the charges to fabricate and improve schools. Government should offer more projects for understudy before they dropout. At the point when an understudy chooses to drop out of school they ought to need to go to a one day program that will show them the impacts of dropping out of school. At the point when they complete the program on the off chance that they despite everything chose to drop out of secondary school they ought to need to sign a wavier perusing: â€Å"By marking this, I understand I won't have what it takes to get by in the 21st century. † They are then given a † Certificate of Dropping Outing. † If legislators were to make it harder to drop out of school then the understudy would realize that they are not kidding about school. Kids themselves could stop dropping out of school. They could set objectives and stayed with them regardless of what companion pressures come their direction. Children could become individuals from some kind of companion bolster gatherings, so they would have somebody to converse with when they need a listening ear. They could likewise be progressively dynamic in chapel, rather than holding tight the city intersection getting in a difficult situation. Youth ought to take a stab at the top and don't surrender due to snags holding up traffic. At the point when understudies begin to take school genuine then different gatherings will play out their jobs. Everybody puts a section in kids getting training. On the off chance that one individual neglects to do their part, at that point the dropout rates will just increment.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Althea Gibson :: Biography Biographies

Althea Gibson As we take a gander at our past, we are better ready to see the positive advances that we have made. One of the best obsticles that we have defeated is the hindrance of race. In the course of the most recent a very long while African Americans have had a colossal effect on numerous regions of society, for example, governmental issues, educatoin and most definately games. On August 27, 1927, Althea Gibson was conceived. She did not enter the world to an existence of style. From the starting, her life was an extreme one. Her family dwelled in Harlem during the 1930’s and 40;s. Times were very hard for the little youngster. Her family was on government assistance and she, herself was a customer of the general public for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. In light of home life injuries, Althea oftentimes played hooky. The occasions that she did go, she battled however the day. While she was growing up, she likewise fled from home various occasions. As any youthful youngster would do, Althea looked for an outlet from the ordinary hardships of school and home life. This is the place she found tennis. Everything started at nearby amusement programs where she took up table tennis, or ping pong. Althea had ability right from the earliest starting point. She understood that she, a young lady who’s life had been only harsh streets and sudden turns, could be acceptable at something. As she kept on picking up enthusiasm just as impeccable her table tennis abilities, Althea started to contend, and win a few nearby competitions. In view of these victories,Althea started to get took note. One man, an artist by the name of Buddy Walker, saw Althea play at some point and had a revolation. He figured that if Althea was so great at table tennis, at that point she would exceed expectations in normal tennis also. At that point, nobody acknowledged exactly how useful this thought would be for the youthful Harlem young lady, Althea Gibson. Through gifts raised to pay for her enrollment and exercises, Althea turned into an individual from an African American club called the Harlem Cosmopolitian Tennis Club. It was here that she aquired the aptitudes expected to contend in tennis matches at a higher, increasingly competative level. At that point that Althea was developing as a perceived tennis player, African American’s openings were to some degree limitied. One association called the American Tennis Association given tounament chances to African American tennis players. In 1942, Althea Gibson had her first milestone Althea Gibson :: Biography Biographies Althea Gibson As we take a gander at our past, we are better ready to see the positive advances that we have made. One of the best obsticles that we have defeated is the boundary of race. Throughout the most recent a very long while African Americans have had a gigantic effect on numerous regions of society, for example, legislative issues, educatoin and most definately sports. On August 27, 1927, Althea Gibson was conceived. She did not enter the world to an existence of excitement. From the starting, her life was an extreme one. Her family lived in Harlem during the 1930’s and 40;s. Times were very hard for the little youngster. Her family was on government assistance and she, herself was a customer of the general public for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. As a result of home life injuries, Althea as often as possible played hooky. The occasions that she did go, she battled however the day. While she was growing up, she likewise fled from home various occasions. As any youthful youngster would do, Althea scanned for an outlet from the regular hardships of school and home life. This is the place she found tennis. Everything started at nearby entertainment programs where she took up table tennis, or ping pong. Althea had ability right from the earliest starting point. She understood that she, a young lady who’s life had been only unpleasant streets and unexpected turns, could be acceptable at something. As she kept on picking up enthusiasm just as immaculate her table tennis aptitudes, Althea started to contend, and win a few nearby competitions. Due to these victories,Althea started to get took note. One man, an artist by the name of Buddy Walker, saw Althea play at some point and had a revolation. He figured that if Althea was so great at table tennis, at that point she would exceed expectations in ordinary tennis also. At that point, nobody acknowledged exactly how gainful this thought would be for the youthful Harlem young lady, Althea Gibson. Through gifts raised to pay for her enrollment and exercises, Althea turned into an individual from an African American club called the Harlem Cosmopolitian Tennis Club. It was here that she aquired the aptitudes expected to contend in tennis matches at a higher, increasingly competative level. At that point that Althea was developing as a perceived tennis player, African American’s openings were to some degree limitied. One association called the American Tennis Association given tounament chances to African American tennis players. In 1942, Althea Gibson had her first milestone

Tuesday, August 18, 2020

Ultimate Guide to Market Situation Analysis

Ultimate Guide to Market Situation Analysis If you are familiar with business plans and marketing plans, then a market situation analysis is no longer new to you. Whether it is a standalone marketing plan, or a marketing plan within a larger, more encompassing business plan, expect to find a market situation analysis section in there.This is one section in a business plan that must not be ignored or taken lightly, which is why businesses are even hiring professional marketing analysts to be in charge of its preparation. © Shutterstock | PureSolutionThis guide will 1) introduce you to market situation analysis including 4Cs and 2) walk you through the content of a market situation analysis.INTRODUCTION TO MARKET SITUATION ANALYSISFrom the phrase alone, we can pretty much deduce what a “market situation analysis” is. It involves evaluation of the situation and trends in a specific market. If you are in the process of business planning to launch a new product in a specific market, you need to evaluate the situation in that market.The purpose of this is clear: to help the business determine the areas where marketing efforts are most needed, and to enable you to make your business plans and implement them accordingly.Marketing plans, campaigns and strategies are developed after much research and analysis, and that is where the market situation analysis comes in handy. This will serve as a guide for the marketing team and management to make decisions regarding the marketing route that the business wi ll take.Many look at market situation analysis as a simple activity. Others refer to the specific section in a marketing or business plan. On the other hand, there are those who describe it as a process. All these perspectives are correct.[slideshare id=35514328doc=iclass4-situationalanalysisv20140410posting-140605023559-phpapp01w=640h=330]4 Cs of Market Situation AnalysisSeveral pieces of literature refer to situation analysis as the analysis of the “Four Cs”, referring to the four major elements that are to be studied or evaluated.Company â€" This is an analysis of the internal workings of the business or company, such as its goals and objectives, be they short-term or long-term. It also takes a look at the organizational and corporate culture in place, the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and its share in the market.Customer â€" This time, attention is focused on the customer, so this will look into customer demographics, such as type, number, age, and so on. It will tak e an even deeper look, taking into account the value drivers that make the customers act in a certain way. The analysis will also take a look at the decision processes of customers.Competitor â€" Since competition is another important aspect of a business, there is also a need to include them in the market situation analysis. The analysis will take a look at the market position of the company and its shares, as compared to that of the competitors. It will also have to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors.Collaborators â€" Aside from the business and its competitors, there are other parties that also play a crucial, though indirect, role in the business operations. They are the collaborators, and they include other players such as distributors, suppliers, consultants, subsidiaries and joint ventures, to name a few.Market Situation Analysis in the Business PlanThis section in the business plan contains all the information, and analysis thereof, regarding the market that the business finds itself in. In short, it describes the current status or state of the target market.Therefore, you will find information derived from research and analysis on your business’ target market, its customers, its competitors, and the business challenges that it faces. In addition, it also contains a SWOT analysis of your business, detailing its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and the threats that it faces.This is how to perform a SWOT analysis for your business. Keep in mind that all the information and data to be included in the Market Situation Analysis should be based on cold, hard, verifiable facts. Hunches, speculations and guesses â€" no matter how much you claim that they are educated or provided by experts â€" should not make their way on the market situation analysis, unless you include a disclaimer stating that fact.Remember that your management and marketing team â€" and other users â€" will be relying on the contents of your Market Situation Pla n for their own decision-making. Giving them information that is wrong or unreliable will only lead to more problems.CONTENTS OF THE MARKET SITUATION ANALYSISLet us take a look at the items that should be included in the Market Situation Analysis section of your plan.Analysis of the Current Product or ServiceThe first question to be answered is “what are the business’ products or services?” or, if applicable, “what are the product lines or service lines that the business currently offers?”The points that you should touch on regarding your product include the following:Description and details of your current products/services or product lines and service lines, whichever is applicable. Zero in on the product attributes, such as its main features and specifications.The price point of your product relative to that of your competitors. What pricing strategy did you adopt? If you used different pricing in various distribution levels, such as having a different price for wholesa le buyers, retail buyers, and distributors, you also have to evaluate these points. If you also offer discounts and incentives, you also have to talk about them.The market share of your products or services. Think of the market as a pie; how much of that pie is occupied by your product or service? You should be able to make estimates of the market size so this will enable you to make estimates of growth rates in the future.The promotional strategies for your products or services:The advertising and sales promotion techniques you implement for your products. Do you rely on print and media, or do you also actively make use of online or internet advertising?The position of your product in the market. In short, how did you position your product in the marketplace? Is it the one having the highest quality? Is it the one with the best return on investment? Is it the one with the lowest price?Differentiations of your product or service. How do you distinguish your product or service from o ther similar products or services in the market?The personal selling and public relations that your company uses in order to increase public awareness of your product or services.The places or sources where you purchase your products or, in case of a manufacturing concern, its raw materials. You should also include the alternative sources of these parts or components.The places or outlets where your products are available for sale, or where your services may be sought. This is a detailed look at how the product is delivered to the market and to the end users, or how it is made accessible to them.The support services that you currently offer to your distributors and end users. This covers the services that you provide before and during the sale. Do you also offer after-sales services? Then you should include that in your situational analysis as well.What if the purpose of the market situation analysis is to launch a new product? Is there still a need to evaluate the current products? This will be up to your judgment. The most obvious answer would be NO, since you are launching a new product that is different from your current products.However, if you can make a connection between your current products and the product that you will potentially launch, then you can touch on it briefly.The same is true if you are still starting a business and there are currently no products or services being offered.Analysis of the Current Target MarketThe most obvious question is probably “what geographic area will the company do business in, or sell its products and services?” That is correct, but that is also not all there is to it. You have to identify your target market, particularly in terms of population and demographics.This is a more extensive customer-focused aspect, because you will be looking at your target audience as a whole. The inclusions are:Strategy used to reach the customers in the target market. Are you using the mass market approach, where your goal is to sell to a large and often very broad market? Or do you take the segmentation approach, targeting selective areas or niches one by one?Psychographic or demographic profile of the target market. You will take into consideration the age, gender, income brackets, education and occupation of the customers in your target market. You should also look deeper, taking into account their lifestyle, attitudes, preferences, and purchasing or shopping decisions.The purchasing process used by the target market, focusing on how they make their decisions and how they go about the entire purchasing process. They are also bound to have several sources of information for their decision-making, so you also have to identify what these sources are. You have to fully understand what influences them to decide whether to buy or not to buy. There are subconscious factors and conscious factors that influence this decision. You need to be aware of all of them.Analysis of the Current CustomerIn some instances, people preparing this section of a marketing plan include the analysis of the customers with that of the target market. But it won’t be a bad idea to make a separate evaluation. This is where you will describe the characteristics of the customers in your target market.Their needs. More specifically, what are the benefits that they are looking for in the market, and are your products or services able to provide those benefits?Their usage of the product. You’ll have to relate the product or service with the customer. Identify the customer that uses the product or service, and ascertain their reasons for using these products and service. When do they use it, and how do they use it?Their perception of your product or service, and of your brand as a whole, and their overall attitudes. This is one way to test whether the current positioning of your product or service actually works. Analysis of the Current CompetitionDo you know who your competitors in the market are? If you do, have you taken the time to determine your market share with respect to their market share? It is not enough that you know that you have competitors A and B. You also have to see how you are faring against them.When evaluating your competitors, pay close attention to the following:The target markets currently being served by the competitorsThe products or services from the competitors that are directly (or even indirectly) competing with yoursThe pricing strategies of the competitorsThe promotional program and strategies of the competitorsAdditional services offered by the competitors before, during and after sale of products and servicesTheir strengths and weaknessesIf you notice, they mirror the items that you also have to evaluate internally, within your own business. That is because you want to compare your own operations with that of your competitors.When analyzing the competitive situation that your business is in, you also have to widen your scope, looking at the big picture and ta king note of the current competitive trends, as well as the trends that are foreseen to prevail in the future. These trends will affect the competitive landscape of your business.Analysis of the Current Distributor NetworkWhen you evaluated the current products or services, you have touched on how you made them accessible to the end users. However, if you have an extensive distributor network, you might want to create a separate section for it. (Of course, if the company does not make use of distributors, this part could be skipped.)Emphasis should be put on the distribution channels used to bring the product or service to the market, including the modes of shipping and handling and the process implemented for processing orders and shipping them out. It is also recommended to include an analysis on the major benefits that are received by the distributors as well as the company itself.Preparers of marketing plans suggest that the following be included in the evaluation of distributor networks.Distribution channels or supply chain used to deliver the product to the final users. Does the company perform direct selling, or do they purely sell their product or services through a third-party distributor? If both channels are used, what is the ratio of usage?The needs of the distributors that are satisfied by their relationship with the company. How does your product or service help their business? What are the benefits that they get from being part of your distribution network?Demographic profile of the network. This is in cases where the company has more than a few distributors. Identify the types and sizes of distributors, and the markets served as well as geographic areas, if applicable.Financial AnalysisThis is a closer look at the current financial condition of your company. Basically, you will be dealing with numbers and wading through the various financial reports pertaining to the operations of the company.Points that require the most attention during analys is are:Current Sales: You will pay attention to the various levels: industry level, product category level, segment level, and geographical level, whichever is applicable. If your market also spans several geographical regions, you may also evaluate the level of sales per region. Afterwards, you should also compare your sales figures to those of your competitors.Profitability: Profitability means looking at the bottom line. However, there more considerations than just the Net Income or Net Profit figure. You also have to take into consideration the revenues or receipts and the expenses or costs that reduce them.Growth: Using financial information and ratios derived from the reports and statements, you may also deepen your analysis by looking into the growth potential of the company, and compare how it will fare with the competition and in the industry as a whole.Other External ForcesThere are simply some other factors or forces that affect the performance of a business that, no matt er what the business does, are completely out of their control. These also need to be included in the evaluation.Areas to be considered include:Social and cultural forces. This is especially true if you are operating in various markets, since there are bound to be social and cultural differences that would affect how you do business.Economic forces. Economic and market stability is generally uncontrollable by the company so, in a sense, all businesses are under the mercy of movements in the economy.Technological forces. At the fast rate of technological advances and innovations, businesses are forced to keep up if they aim to be constantly competitive.Legal forces. Businesses are subject to certain legal and regulatory restrictions and they must adhere to them. These should also be noted in the market situation analysis considering that they will also affect how the business should draw up its marketing and business plan.Political forces. Multinational companies with segments in var ious countries find themselves having to deal with political forces in those countries. Situations like these should also be included in the analysis, considering their impact on the company as a whole.There is no definite format on how the Market Situation Analysis should be written. It could be as short as a few pages, or as many as a bundle of them. The important thing is that the most relevant and important points are documented, and that the resulting Market Situation Analysis is reliable for decision makers.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Creating Positive Relationships Among Co Workers Essay

Creating Positive Relationships Among Co-Workers through Nurse to Nurse Communication A large part of a nurse’s day includes providing effective nurse to patient communication in order to achieve positive patient outcomes but often another source of communication that also aids in achieving positive patient outcomes, nurse to nurse communication, is often deemed insignificant. A hectic workday can make creating positive relationships nearly impossible however, taking the time to create these positive relationships among nursing co-workers’ is significant. Positive relationships among coworkers through effective nurse to nurse communication may aid in the prevention of medical errors on patient safety through the establishment of trust and mutual respect among nurses. In addition, through these positive relationships issues such as lateral violence and nurse burnout may be avoided. Nurse to Nurse Communication Nurse to Nurse communication directly impacts patient care and â€Å"what we say, how we say it, and what we mean by it† (Vertino, 2014, para. 3) are extremely important. There is a huge emphasis on communication in the nursing profession therefore, developing essential communication skills is vital and ineffective communication can have severe consequences and be the difference between life and death. According to a 2013 study published in the Journal of Patient Safety, as many as 440,000 people die each year from preventable medical errors and of those deaths theShow MoreRelatedUse of an Attitude Survey in GMFC Labor Talks1443 Words   |  6 Pagescharacteristics which impact employee behavior and organizational performance (Williams, 1998). Companies may use survey results to modify their management style, organizational culture, workplace characteristics, or incentives in order to improve worker satisfaction and overall productivity (Williams, 1998). 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Critical Analysis Of The Current Performance Management Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2544 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? To perform well in this assignment, you are expected to satisfy the assessment criteria identified in the matrix provided above. You should also research widely using a wide variety of articles relevant to the topic, with a minimum of ten (10) peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles. Wikipedia sources and other www source materials are not recognised as reliable reference sources. (For assistance in accessing such papers, students should access the CQU Librarys website.) Details Read the case study below. Provide an analysis of the case study below. Your paper should provide a critical analysis of the current performance management (PM) practices in the organisation. Your analysis should reflect current thinking and practice in international human resource management (IHRM) and the differentiating factors that warrant analysis in IHRM. It should include comment on the influencing functions such as staffing, training and development, employment relations, organisation and national culture and other relevant issues that may impact on the PM model. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Critical Analysis Of The Current Performance Management Business Essay" essay for you Create order Do not answer the guide questions individually, but rather use them as a guide for your analysis, recommendations, if any, and conclusion. Global talent management at Standard Chartered Bank Standard Chartered bank has turned the emerging talent and skills shortage challenge around. Standard Chartered, an international retail and corporate bank with headquarters in London, derives 90 percent of its profits from emerging markets in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. With Standard Chartereds declared goal of measurably increasing leadership capacity by 2011, the bank faces major global HR challenges. An additional challenge is that it must recruit people from countries where there is a limited, often non-existent, pool of banking talent with the requisite skills and experience. Aware of the enormous talent management challenge, HR understands that the bank needs to create its own talent factory and do a number of critical things right. First, it needs the endorsement and emotional commitment of the CEO, regional business teams, and country CEOs. The talent management processes of acquiring, developing, and retaining people must become core strategic objectives of the bank and part of everything that managers do in every market in the world. Second, building a talent pool is a long-haul journey. For Standard Chartered, that translates into simple core processes, minimum standards, and reliable data so that managers can have acceptable country conversations on how to best manage talent in their part of the world. While introducing global standards and tools, managers in the emerging markets are given some latitudes to decide how to implement HR practices around talent. With 9 000 line managers, who tend to be rational and data-based bankers rather than touchy-feely types of people, an HR decision to focus on hard data as the source of action is a good fit. The result is a Human Capacity Scorecard, introduced in 2005. It has now grown to an extensive database that contains detailed work force information regarding the effectiveness of people processes and their impact on business performance for each business unit and country. The data are manage d through a Shared Service Centre in India. Employees are classified into one of four categories, ranging from high-potentials to underperformers. This helps managers better understand what they need to do to support their local talent and plan for the future talent needs of the bank. Third, because of the absence of skilled talent in the emerging markets in which they operate, Standard Chartered made the decision to focus on the strengths of its people (whether potential recruits or employees) rather than on traditional HR competency models. Since people perform best when they play to their strengths, it matches the strengths of its employees with the appropriate competency requirements of the positions to be filled. Finally, Standard Chartered uses a structured interview process to get leaders to play to their best skills, creates profiles to increase self-awareness, and offers coaching and self-help tools for improvement. Because leadership development is imperative for sus tainability, growth and a satisfied work force, they focus on the creation of an internal pipeline of people who can accelerate their personal development and assume leadership roles at a rapid pace. Combining executive commitment, standard processes, a data-driven Human Capital Scorecard, a focus on the strengths of its labour pool and an ongoing development of the leadership pipeline, HR is strategically managing the talent factory essential for the banks future success. Guild Questions 1. How does Standard Chartered Banks leadership development talent factory differ from traditional methods of developing leaders in Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs)? 2. What arguments would you put for or against Standard Chartered Banks process for acquiring, developing, and retaining employees to assume future leadership roles within the bank? 3. While Standard Chartered Bank has introduced global standards and tools, managers in the emerging markets are given some latitudes to decide how to implement HR practices around talent. Which HR practices would you recommend the bank standardise and which would you recommend allowing managers to vary in relation to managing talent in the banks emerging markets? 1.1 Human resources management: An historical perspective In order to find the first root of a working structure, we have to analyze the Middle-Ages. Indeed, Clermont Barnabà © (1981, pp.27-51) highlights the first traces of productivity and the delegation of duties at this time. It is hardly surprising that a certain notion of human resources management might have found. Indeed, we can highlight the first foundation of the working structure that we currently know with both status masters and serfs. However, this relation was not the more desirable for the serfs but it was possible to underline different social classes. Even though the concept of slave that we unfortunately know might seem quiet close of serf, there is a fundamental distinction because the latter enjoyed certain right that enables them to have a more favourable situation than the slaves; they were allowed to go to court, to participate to a contract and so forth (Microsoft Encarta, 2008). Moreover, the owners status depended upon the number of slaves what serfs was not and therefore, it shows us that they were considered more as the current concept of tools, machines, and so forth; included within the capital. At this period, a certain organization could be viewed with the development of guild a medieval association with two distinctions for merchants and craftsmen. (Microsoft Encarta, 2008) The organization inside is strictly hierarchical and controlled where three different classes of workers interacted. The master was at the top of the hierarchy but he was involved in the daily work with journeymen who were able to become a master in the future. Of course, they were at an intermediary level but the apprentice was at the bottom of the scale and occupied the worst position. This latter grade was compulsory. This association marked the real beginning of the human resources management because these three aforementioned classes formed a high close-knit group. Therefore, it was possible to emphasize a certain degree of specialisation in order t o produce and it enables them to interact between holders and workers. Talent management : art or science ? Fang Fang Li and Pierre Devos 16 Nevertheless, this situation evolved with the emergence of numerous events. Indeed, since the beginning of the 18th century, the new invention such as mechanization, the growing concentration within the towns, and the shift about organization for the production appeared. These new influences enable the transition from the domestic system to factory system. Indeed the mechanization does not enable workers to work at home anymore and a fundamental shift took place: the human moved through a defined location. The consequences for the human resources management were deep. Indeed, this period developed an interdependence of each position and duties. For instance, it was necessary to start and to finish the work more or less at the same time and therefore to set rules in order to develop an environment with a gathering of people. The human resourc es management knew during the second half of 20th century and during the first years of the 21st century a quiet growing evolution, highly diversified upon an international dimension and deep about the mentalities and/or relations between work and capital. Indeed the HRM is marked by the link between the respective interests for workers and the capital holders; these interests are rarely spontaneously convergent and sometimes quiet difficult to reconcile. This situation might be a source of tensions and frustration. (Leys, 2005) 1.2 Evolution of the Human resource function The evolution of HR function mainly experienced three stages: the personal department stage, the strategic human resource stage and talent management stage (Bersin, 2006). The graphic quoted from Bersins article named ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢talent management, what is it? Why now?ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- can illustrate these three stages quite clear. Talent management : art or science ? Fang Fang Li and Pierre Devos 17 Figure 3: Evolution of the HR Function (Resource from: talent management, what is it? Why now? Bersin, 2006) Stage 1: personal department The ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Personnel DepartmentÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- was existed in organization during the 1970s and 1980s, which the business function was responsible for people. This department acted the role as hiring employees, pay for the salary, and make sure they had the necessary benefits. The systems which grew up to support this function were batch payroll systems. In this role, the personnel department was a well understood business function, the talent management is not involved as well as the human resource management. Stage 2: strategic human resource department During the 1980s and 1990s, the concepts of ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Strategic HRÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- emerged. In this stage, people in the organizations realized the much larger function of HR: job role design, organization design, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high Talent management : art or science ? Fang Fang Li and Pierre Devos 18 performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Their activities also include carrying out the compensation packages including welfare, insurance, benefits, stock options and bonuses. In this role, the HR department became more than a business function: it is a business partner, reaching out to support lines of business, the emergence of the recruiting, training and performance management has some certain connected with the talent management. Stage 3: talent management We are now in the new stage: Talent Management. While strategic HR continues to be a major function, but more focus on a new set of strategic issues:  · How can we make our recruiting process more efficient and effective?  · How can we indentify the talents ability and potential, make sure they are put in the right position?  · How can we provide a learning organization that develops our talent?  · How can we reinforce our system and company culture to keep this talent? These new challenging issues require new processes and systems. It requires the integration between these processes and companys business strategy. Top leadership and HR involvement are essential, a talent mindset and capabilities must be embedded and sustained throughout the organization, and everyone in the organization should enlist in nurture and breed the talent. Creating and developing the talent through the process in this factory has become collective responsibility . The HR function is integrated with the business strategy in a real-time fashion. 1.3 A globally workforce trend When we come to the twenty-first century, the business environment has been completely ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢reinventedÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-. The increasingly sophisticated computers technology is just one of the core shifts in how companies operate and succeed. For most of the company, human resource has become the major source of value. In the knowledge-based economy of twenty-first Talent management : art or science ? Fang Fang Li and Pierre Devos 19 century, human capability determines the winner and loser in todays global markets. Indeed, it is a necessary condition for which companies depends on, compete for and success. For a growing number of companies, competitive advantage lies in the ability to create a profit driven not by cost efficiency but by the ideas and intellectual know-how. The idea, knowledge, and skills from these people give the potential to produce value for company. Even though more and more people and organizations have realized the i mportance of human capital in the company, they dedicated millions of money to build their human resource system and supporting HR management. However, many companies complain that they do not have talented employees in their companies. Indeed, Susan Rider (2008, p19) complains the difficulty to hire talent in her text ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢a treasure of talentÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- by saying: ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢this (talent) has become a problem for managers in many industries, and is exacerbated by employers that donÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸t take pains to vet their prospects.ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- This situation of job-hopping is very common in most of companies or more globally in certain industries. One of the important reasons we think is the lack of attention paid on the shift of labor force market. There are three remarkable changes of the labor force market in a global level during the past decades. The nature of work is shifting The nature of the work shifts from the reliance of manual work towards to knowledge-based work. In other words, the primary value of a company has shifted from tangible to intangible assets. Over the last twenty years, along with the opening of new markets, the economy of the developed world has taken a revolution in the nature of work and where and how value is created. It has propelled fundamental changes in ways of working, the nature of production and value creation. Modern organizations own and employ fewer of the basic inputs of production than they did twenty years ago, and they generally produce a much smaller proportion of their output directly in their own facilities. As Peter Cheese mentioned in his new book ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢The talent powered organizationÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-, twenty-five years ago, eighty percent of a typical companys market value was based on its tangible assets, such as machinery and facilities. Only a small part of its value was attributed to intangible assets. Nevertheless, today things had been reversed. On average across all industries, only around twenty to thirty percent of value is attributable to tangible assets (Cheese, Talent management : art or science ? Fang Fang Li and Pierre Devos 20 2007). The greatest part of a typical companys value comes from intangibles, including its unique knowledge, capability, production process, service, logistic, marketing and relationships with clients and suppliers, its brand value and reputation. Almost all of these intangible assets are driven by human talent. That is why General Electric Company make its business slogan as ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢great people plus great team is moneyÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-. The CEO of GE company Jeff Immelt mentioned: The initiative we are driving now is organic growth, if that is your initiative, it doesnÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸t make sense to be training people exactly the same way you trained the m in past. So we identified about 15 companies that had grown at three times the rate of GDP, and asked them what they had in common, it was five things: external focus, decisiveness, inclusiveness, risk-taking and domain expertise. So we reoriented the way we evaluate and train along those lines. (Colvin, 2006) As he suggested the focus on the competencies that are crucial to the companys future business needs rather than focus on broad area. Skill shortage and aging population In business world, the labor shortage is a highly contentious issue. Many human resource professionals pointed out a sl Adapted from Briscoe DR, Schuler RS, Claus L 2009. International Human Resource

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Global warming and people going green Essay Free Essays

The natural environment is the place of all life and non life beings. Natural resources are available to human existences without clear cut boundaries in the natural air. H2O and clime. We will write a custom essay sample on Global warming and people going green Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Natural environment has a beginning of energy. radiation and electric charge and all these are non as an influence of human activity but by the bing nature of our planet. It is the huge creative activity that makes adult male enjoy and take pleasance and hence demands to prosecute in preserving and heightening the natural environment. Great challenges have faced our natural and original environment and accordingly devastation. pollution. and loss of life has been seen to happen through the influence of human activity. Pollution in the air. H2O. and in the environment in general has been apparent through the burning of fuels and other non reclaimable stuff. Water. land and air have non been conserved and this poses a great danger on the bing ecosystem. Man’s interferance has threatened the being of species and has led to some of them being endangered or nonextant. This is a direct impact that shows that adult male has had discourtesy of biodiversity and ecosystems in which human existences and other life beings depend on. Human’s activities have been linked to be an environments large challenge. The release of C dioxide from green houses has been on focal point as this is a human and natural environments interaction with gases has caused clime alteration. These strong concerns are associated to greenhouse gases that cause climate alteration. Global heating has been associated to the rise in the temperature on the earth’s air and oceans. Large heat capacity on oceans have caused the sea degree to lift and do utmost conditions alterations. As a consequence of such environmental concerns assorted authoritiess have signed the Kyoto protocol so that they can be after on cut downing green house emanation. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. globalissues. org/EnvIssues/GlobalWarming. asp It is of import at this occasion for adult male to understand that he has a direct influence to the alterations that occur on the Earth surface and should take cautiousness about them. Climate may alter but non entirely by atmospheric concentration of C dioxide from green houses. The ascription of planetary heating can be linked to the industrial epoch where adult male has been vigorous in their activity and have had no cognition on the impact they have to the natural environment. The soaking up of atmospheric gases contributes to warming the lower ambiance and surface of the planet. During the soaking up and emanation procedure of infrared radiation warming occurs. ( Weart 2003 ) . Water vapor. C dioxide gas. methane and ozone are the major green house gases responsible for the heating effects. This is attributed by increased human activity in the industrial revolution such as agribusiness. green houses. motor industries among others. deforestation. One among the greatest human activities that have markedly increased gas emanation is the combustion of dodos. Use of dodo fuel is therefore seen to be lending factor with such dodos fuel militias increasing their emanations through the increased and extended usage of coal and pitch littorals. Evaporated H2O signifiers gas in to the ambiance and as a consequence more H2O evaporates and hence there is more consequence than due to carbon emanations entirely. From the clouds. emitted infrared radiation exerts a warming consequence and when they reflect sunlight they emit infrared radiations that have a chilling consequence. ( Weart 2003 ) . Temperatures were comparatively stable before 1850 but gradual addition in sea temperature than on land is a natural phenomenon. Land has an effectual heat capacity as compared to the oceans which loose heat more readily. Forest glade and Asiatic rice irrigation are human influences that William Ruddiman argued that planetary clime was influenced by these activities. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. incredulity. net/global_warming Global heating consequences to planetary retreat and sea degree rise. The addition in planetary temperatures can take besides to north-polar shrinking and marked pattern alterations in the rainfall. As a consequence inundation or checkerss are a common consequence of the planetary heating. These are utmost conditions events. Death of animate beings and immensely the devastation is really tremendous. Floods and drought seasons cause low agricultural output as endurance of workss is so compromised and the life of animate beings is at interest with addition in diseases. With such catastrophes. inauspicious wellness effects. supplanting and utmost economic losingss destabilize the normal life of the people on planet Earth. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. incredulity. net/global_warming Human activity have great reverberations on their life with the possible decrease of ozone bed and happening of hurricanes and other pelagic interventions that make favorable. the spread of malaria and dandy fever febrility. With political and societal arguments traveling on. hapless parts such as Africa risk the effects of planetary heating. The developed universe and particularly the western portion have accepted the thought that human influence is the major influence to climate alteration. Assorted states now weigh the benefit that would ensue when industrial emanations are limited against the cost they would incur when they adopt new alterations. For the interest of recovering back the natural environment. alternate energy beginnings should be embraced and given opportunity for observation. Vigorous runs that teach on the consequence of planetary activities and stress on adaptation of stricter steps that would cut down gas emanation should have support worldwide. India and Chinas have a batch of C dioxide emanations and the U. S. every bit good. However. worthwhile thoughts and dedications have been recorded in the U. S which is willing to bear the cost and cut down its C emanation. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. globalissues. org/EnvIssues/GlobalWarming. asp Many alterations are bound to be realised with the day-to-day effects related to planetary heating. There is so much uncertainness about other warming marks that may be associated to human activity and ensuing to temperature addition. Vector borne diseases are bound to increase due to the migration of the insects from the north parts and particularly due to the consequence of the warmth addition. As it was recorded in 2004 and 2005. black hurricanes were attributed to the heater Waterss on the ocean and no 1 can expect if they will patronize or be stronger as they hit the parts. ( Leroux 2005 ) As a consequence of planetary warming serious checkerss will hold people suffer and particularly Africa and in Europe. In general. the effects of planetary heating can run out the economic system at a state as they try to reconstruct damaged substructure. remedy diseases and seek to pull off such environmental struggles. Though planetary heating has been attributed to other activities that do non associate to adult male. the major intercession by adult male would be to cover with those that are in their control. Solar fluctuations. volcanic eruptions. orbital forcing. glacier retreats and disease vectors may be associated be causative agents to increased temperature. But a critical expression at it lives the inquiry. Should adult male be nescient of his activities on the Earth? hypertext transfer protocol: //www. canadafreepress. com/2007/global-warming020507. html Man should be at the bow forepart. looking for solutions instead than warranting their non- part to the planetary heating. Small and big graduated table preventative steps can be put in topographic point to assist forestall farther injury and make a better topographic point for our kids to populate in. Without green house emanations temperature would be endurable and more hospitable. Use of fossil fuels used to run autos. heat places and concerns should be under cheque so that carbon dioxide concentration is reduced. In this breath. usage of gas. gasoline and Diesel as used in crude oil merchandises should be reduced. In the same manner that adult male has been able to impact the planet. they should be able to consequence alteration through alteration of practise. They should do usage of fuel-efficient autos. cut down travel errands. and utilize alternate agencies of conveyance like walking or merely working from the house. At place. one should take at utilizing energy salvaging contraptions and illuming stuffs. A great trade of deforestation. industrial activities. excavation and agricultural addition has led to gas emanation. As a scheme. trees should be planted and deforestation stopped. Deciduous trees should be planted as they contribute to taking 50 lbs of C from the air yearly. Industrialization should be minimized and compost cavities made for waste disposal such as foliages. Ignorance about planetary heating should be a forgone phenomenon and adult male should wake up to the call of reconstructing the already damaged environment. Air. H2O systems and the environment have degraded and the issue at manus is to come on and change by reversal the eroding that has already taken topographic point. It is of paramount concern. that adult male should non take opportunities to affect themselves in activities that compromise the planetary call to forestalling planetary heating. The hazards involved in planetary heating are far stretching and the effects can be felt for a life-time. As per the United Nations millenary development ends. work outing the environmental job will be regarded as eliminating poorness. Mankind should take to cut down dodo fuel imports and continue the ecosystem through increased consciousness runs that address the clime alteration issue. Citizens and companies should encompass anti pollution and planetary heating bar steps. ( Pringle 2001 ) Policies at local and national degree should be put in operation so that single activities are governed and implemented at province degree. Why would adult male non be willing to do a better topographic point for him and coevalss to come? The major measure to understand that forestalling C emanation is one of the cheapest intercessions that adult male can utilize to halt the threat. Invention in new engineering of autos and major power workss should hold a 2nd idea on the deduction it has the hereafter. All in all adult male should through accustomed pattern. salvage energy and have another option to utilize of fossil fuels. In 1990 to 19995. El Nino was a force per unit area release that was linked to planetary heating. Heavy rains pounded and several thousand displaced by inundations. Death of human and of farm animal marked the season. Beside such conditions events hurricanes have claimed life. caused devastation and economic loss. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. globalissues. org/EnvIssues/GlobalWarming. asp Why would adult male be willing to put on the line more? It is the responsibility of all adult male to transport aggressive runs and appreciate the fact that they caused it to go on and they can do it alter for better. With dedication and motive. such calamities can be long forgotten as they work on towards one end of forestalling planetary heating and reconstructing the debauched environment. Its effects are black but our control is the manner frontward. Plants Cited Ball T. Global Warming. worlds. Carbon Dioxide. The Cold. Hard Facts. Retrieved from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. canadafreepress. com/2007/global-warming020507. htm on Friday. April 11. 2008 How to cite Global warming and people going green Essay, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Ap Global Midterm Review free essay sample

Only two completely new countries in Europe were formed after WWW Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Poland, which had been wiped off the map in 1795, was revived. The Baltic republics Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania asserted their independence. Romania doubled in size. After To a great extent, no new countries were formed after World War II. Most of these changes occurred in the East.Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, only just winning independence after WWW were erased as independent states and came part of the Soviet Union. Pollards borders were moved eastward to include only the corridor from before the war but also parts of East Prussia, Pomeranian, and Sillies, though they also lost the eastern parts of their country to the Soviet Union. Austria and Czechoslovakia, states created by the end of WWW but annexed to Nazi Germany in the asses reappeared, though Czechoslovakia was firmly under Soviet domination and the Austrian were forced to remain neutral during the growing Cold War. We will write a custom essay sample on Ap Global Midterm Review or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Europe the only country divided was Germany. * Conservatism in western politics Conservatives, such as Australias prince Clemens von Meteoritic, were bent on maintaining the sanctity of traditional political institutions, particularly the monarchy. It was also their goal to maintain a balance of power in Europe in order to ensure a permanent peace. * Welfare state Welfare State and Consumer Society A. The motives for the welfare state protection against depression and political extremism argument for social justice B.Features of the welfare state support from cradle to grave 2. Educational and cultural opportunities C. The growth of consumer society a new standard of living . Materialism and hedonism the 3. The end of public life? * Nuclear umbrella Nuclear umbrella refers to a guarantee by a nuclear weapons state to defend a non-nuclear allied state. * Germany after World War II At the end of the war, Germany was basically divided into 4 sections, each one under the control of one of the Allied powers; The United States, England, France, and Russia.Berlin was divided as well. After a period of rebuilding and reorganization, the sections under the control of the United States, England, and France were returned to the control of the German government. Russia attained control over its section and brought it under the fold of the newly formed USSR. This resulted in the Berlin Wall, and the separate countries of East Germany and West Germany. Following the fall of communism and the breakup of the USSR in the 1 asss, Germany reunified. Marshall plan * Proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy * viewed as a vehicle for American economic dominance * Iron Curtain * a term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO c ountries from about 945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 * was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II * Soviet control over Eastern Europe Between 1 945 and 1949 Stalin created a Russian empire in Eastern Europe. This empire included Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. Each had a Communist government. In the West they were called satellites because they clung closely to the Soviet Union like satellites round a planet. Stalin was able to create this empire for a number of reasons. The first was the military might of the Soviet Union in Europe after 945. Another reason for the spread of Communism after the war was the gratitude of many Eastern Europeans for their liberation from Nazism.This, and the often-appalling conditions at the end of the war, played into the hands of east European communist parties, which were, of course, backed by Stalin and the Soviet union. * Decentralization after World War II After WINNIE Europe tried to reassert its colonial dominance over Africa and the Far East. At the same time national movements grew strong in those colonies. Europe soon realized that they would be unable to physically control the loonies without massive military occupation forces.This was impossible both in economic and political terms. As a result the colonial powers began a staged withdrawal of physical control but maintained economic ties. While these new countries were independent their formal colonial masters still had much control over the country. * Impact of World War II on international trade The conclusion of World War II spurred efforts to correct the problems stemming from protectionism, which had increased since 1 871 , and trade restrictions, which had been imposed between World Wars I and II. The exulting multilateral trade agreements and other forms of international economic cooperation led to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GAIT) and laid the foundation for the World Trade Organization ONTO). * Impact of World War II on civilian population -One of the most distressing impacts that war has on civilians is the frequent removal of their basic human rights -Huge civilian casualties on front line and bombing attacks -gave people the physiological hope to become as powerful as Hitler did * Consequences of industrialization in the asses Mass migration of people from the land to the cities.